Diabetology is the clinical science of diabetes mellitus, its diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

A diabetologist is a physician whose practice and/or research efforts are concentrated in diabetes care. Apart from regulating medication dosage and timing, a diabetologist will also concern themselves with the potential consequences of diabetes, e.g. retinopathy, nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy. The diabetologist may coordinate diabetic educators, nurses, podiatrists, ophthalmologists and renal physicians to educate, treat and monitor a patient.